King LR, Mellins HZ, Scott WW. Radiographic Evaluation of the Bladder Neck in Childhood. Trans of Amer Assoc of Genito-urinary Sugeons. 1963. 55:7-12.
In the Transcripts of the American Association of Genitourinary Surgeons, Lowell King, Harry Mellins and William Wallace Scott detail the anatomy of voiding in 121 pediatric patients. Children ranged from one day to 17 years old. They found a number of interesting observations they describe in the manuscript:
- Approximately 40% of normal girls will have a narrowed proximal urethra – this has no bearing on incidence of vesicoureteral reflux or clinical outcomes and can therefore be considered normal.
- Of boys with outlet obstruction, about half of the patients had meatal stenosis and the other half had posterior urethral valves (PUV).
- Of boys with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), approximately half had a congenital abnormality of the outlet – either PUV or an ureterocele. The rest had normal anatomy but functional deficits that led to residual urine and UTI.
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