Jewett HJ, Eversole Jr. SL. Carcinoma of the Bladder: Characteristic Modes of Local Invasion. J Urol. 1960. 83;4:383-89.
This 1960 manuscript is the transcript of a talk given by Dr. Jewett at the 1960 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Genitourinary Surgeons. Drs. Jewett and Eversole review the pathology from 303 infiltrating bladder cancers and made the following observations.
Jewett and Eversole arrived at three "characteristic modes of local invasion" in bladder cancer:
"1) as a fairly compact mass (70%)
2) as finger-like projections represented frequently as isolated masses (27%)
3) as intramural lymphatic metastases traveling in a direction more or less perpendicular to the plane of the overlying bladder mucosa (3%)"
To reach these conclusions, Jewett and Eversole first characterized the 300 specimens (from autopsy, cystectomy and transurethral resections) using Jewett's staging system: A, submucosa only; B1, less than halfway through the muscle; B2, halfway or more through the muscle; C, perivesical fat or prostate. They immediately found that the majority of cases of lymphatic invasion were stage B2 or C. In addition, well-differentiated tumors (low-grade) remained low-stage; and poorly differentiated, squamous and anaplastic tumor types were much more likely to reach the lymphatics at earlier-stages.
Using these observations, Jewett and Eversole looked closely at pathologic specimens to determine modes on invasion. They determined that many of the "early-stage" tumors were actually missed invasive tumors that invaded deeply into the bladder lymphatics as finger-like projections or perpendicularly into the bladder wall – both difficult to assess with the constraints of serial sectioning and two-dimensional pathologic analysis. While these finger-like and perpendicular growth patterns were relatively uncommon, they were more common in deeply invasive tumors (Stage B2 and C).
To read the entire manuscript: follow the link above, visit the Centennial Website or click here.
HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS highlight the greatest academic manuscripts from the Brady Urological Institute over the past 100 years. As the Brady Urological Institute approaches its centennial, we will present a HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTION from each of the past 100 years. In the most recent experience, the most highly cited article from each year is selected; older manuscripts were selected based on their perceived impact on the field. We hope you enjoy!